Caesar, meanwhile, destroys as many fields and buildings as he can as he marches through the area. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. The remainder limp back inside the camp, and Lucius Petrosidius, the standard bearer, manages to throw his flag inside the camp before he is killed. 52 Caesar, fearing to pursue them very far, because woods and morasses intervened, and also [because] he saw that they suffered no small loss in abandoning their position, reaches Cicero the same day with all his forces safe. The message, written in Greek, says that Caesar is on the way and to continue the resistance. 15 The horse and charioteers of the enemy contended vigorously in a skirmish with our cavalry on the march; yet so that our men were conquerors in all parts, and drove them to their woods and hills; but, having slain a great many, they pursued too eagerly, and lost some of their men. The Trinobantes, the strongest state in the area, ask Caesar for protection and also plead with him to send them Mandubracius as ruler. To this was added, that they never fought in close order, but in small parties and at great distances, and had detachments placed [in different parts], and then the one relieved the other, and the vigorous and fresh succeeded the wearied. In the same place, the cavalry of the whole of Gaul, in number 4,000, assembles, and [also] the chief persons of all the states; he had determined to leave in Gaul a very few of them, whose fidelity toward him he had clearly discerned, and take the rest with him as hostages; because he feared a commotion in Gaul when he should be absent. Ambiorix is elated with his victory and sets out with his cavalry to arouse the Aduatuci and Nervii. They themselves rushed out of the woods to fight here and there, and prevented our men from entering their fortifications. There continue to be civil wars, however. He offers great rewards for those who should kill him: he sends up the cohorts as a relief to the horse. That day he is able to move twenty miles and at sundown further plans are made: Crassus is left with a legion to take care of Samarobriva, the baggage, hostages, documents, and winter food supply. These quickly took fire, and by the violence of the wind, scattered their flames in every part of the camp. In addition, he provides that they be propelled both by oars and sails. Next morning, Caesar must once again change his tactics. 56 When he perceived that they were coming to him voluntarily; that on the one side the Senones and the Carnutes were stimulated by their consciousness of guilt, on the other side the Nervii and the Aduatuci were preparing war against the Romans, and that forces of volunteers would not be wanting to him if he began to advance from his own territories, he proclaims an armed council (this according to the custom of the Gauls in the commencement of war) at which, by a common law, all the youth were wont to assemble in arms, whoever of them comes last is killed in the sight of the whole assembly after being racked with every torture. Thither he proceeds with his legions: he finds the place admirably fortified by nature and art; he, however, undertakes to attack it in two directions. They, greatly alarmed by the unexpected affair, though those things were spoken by an enemy, still thought they were not to be disregarded; and they were especially influenced by this consideration, that it was scarcely credible that the obscure and humble state of the Eburones had dared to make war upon the Roman people of their own accord. 1. Caesar advances into the territories of Cassivellaunus as far as the Thames; an engagement with that prince.—XIX. Cotta, on the other hand, has been suspicious and so remains calm. In this way he keeps some of Gaul in peace. SUBSCRIBE TO READ OR DOWNLOAD EBOOK FOR FREE. 30 This discussion having been held on the two sides, when opposition was offered strenuously by Cotta and the principal officers, �Prevail,� said Sabinus, �if so you wish it;� and he said it with a louder voice, that a great portion of the soldiers might hear him; �nor am I the person among you,� he said, �who is most powerfully alarmed by the danger of death; these will be aware of it, and then, if any thing disastrous shall have occurred, they will demand a reckoning at your hands; these, who, if it were permitted by you, united three days hence with the nearest winter-quarters, may encounter the common condition of war with the rest, and not, as if forced away and separated far from the rest, perish either by the sword or by famine.� There was within our camp a certain Nervian, by name Vertico, born in a distinguished position, who in the beginning of the blockade had deserted to Cicero, and had exhibited his fidelity to him. Caesar orders the horse to give way purposely, and retreat to the camp: at the same time he orders the camp to be fortified with a higher rampart in all directions, the gates to be barricaded, and in executing these things as much confusion to be shown as possible, and to perform them under the pretense of fear. He further orders Cassivellaunus to leave the tribe of Mandubracius in peace, then moves with his army and the hostages back to the sea. He gives high praise to the legion and especially to Cicero for his bravery; next day, he tells them of all that has happened, including the fate of Sabinus and Cotta, but the courage of their legions, he says, has made up for Sabinus' foolhardiness. Notice, for example, the great size of Caesar's fleet. He keeps only 4,000 charioteers and follows the Romans, harassing their foraging parties. Irtaza_Fiaz. L. Aurunculeius, and several tribunes of the soldiers and the centurions of the first rank, were of opinion �that nothing should be done hastily, and that they should not depart from the camp without Caesar�s orders;� they declared, �that any forces of the Germans, however great, might be encountered by fortified winter-quarters; that this fact was a proof [of it]; that they had sustained the first assault of the Germans most valiantly, inflicting many wounds upon them; that they were not distressed for corn; that in the mean time relief would come both from the nearest winter-quarters and from Caesar; lastly, they put the query, �what could be more undetermined, more undignified, than to adopt measures respecting the most important affairs on the authority of an enemy?� When Indutiomarus, however, learns of the general's feat, he abandons his plan of attack and moves his forces. So far did it operate among those barbarian people, that there were found some to be the first to wage war; and so great a change of inclinations did it produce in all, that, except the Aedui and the Remi, whom Caesar had always held in especial honor, the one people for their long standing and uniform fidelity toward the Roman people, the other for their late service in the Gallic war, there was scarcely a state which was not suspected by us. He then proclaims an armed convention, marking the beginning of war. In the mean while scouts having been sent in all directions, he examines by what most convenient path he might cross the valley. In the mean time, while they treat upon the terms, and a longer debate than necessary is designedly entered into by Ambiorix, being surrounded by degrees, he is slain. When they had come to the camp, our men, after making a sally, slaying many of their men, and also capturing a distinguished leader named Lugotorix, brought back their own men in safety. The enemy soldiers retreat and Caesar captures many cattle and also manages to kill many of the enemy. Caesar travels twelve miles before he sees any of the natives, and his first skirmish with them is rather curious. He has more reason than to consider talking as Sabinus did; he is in a situation of disadvantage but sticks to an intelligent plan and refuses to leave his camp. Cicero is astonished; he has not even heard of the defeat of Sabinus' legion. One of the Gallic troopers immediately leaves with a message to Cicero. The reason for the destruction of Sabinus and Cotta's legions is this: the two men do not follow the long-established procedures for saving besieged legions; both are responsible for the disaster. In the middle of this voyage, is an island, which is called Mona: many smaller islands besides are supposed to lie [there], of which islands some have written that at the time of the winter solstice it is night there for thirty consecutive days. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. 36 Much troubled by these events, Q. Titurius, when he had perceived Ambiorix in the distance encouraging his men, sends to him his interpreter, Cn. Then, when an inconsiderable space intervened, Pulfio throws his javelin at the enemy, and pierces one of the multitude who was running up, and while the latter was wounded and slain, the enemy cover him with their shields, and all throw their weapons at the other and afford him no opportunity of retreating. After he saw that this request was firmly refused him, all hope of success being lost, he began to tamper with the chief persons of the Gauls, to call them apart singly and exhort them to remain on the continent; to agitate them with the fear that it was not without reason that Gaul should be stripped of all her nobility; that it was Caesar�s design, to bring over to Britain and put to death all those whom he feared to slay in the sight of Gaul, to pledge his honor to the rest, to ask for their oath that they would by common deliberation execute what they should perceive to be necessary for Gaul. The Gallic-type huts inside are straw-roofed and quickly catch fire. Caesar demands forty hostages from them, and corn for his army, and sends Mandubratius to them. The Britains again prepare for war, and receive a signal defeat.—XVIII. His state wars, he says, because of Gallic pressure. At daybreak the cavalry of the enemy approaches to the camp and joins battle with our horse. Dispute between Titurius and Cotta.—XXXII. When the fight was going on most vigorously before the fortifications, Pulfio, one of them, says, �Why do you hesitate, Varenus? This he sends written in Greek characters, lest the letter being intercepted, our measures should be discovered by the enemy. Cotta says he will not go to an armed enemy, and in that perseveres. He begins to assemble an army for war and hides in the forest those people who cannot fight. But after that, some of the chief persons of the state, both influenced by their friendship for Cingetorix, and alarmed at the arrival of our army, came to Caesar and began to solicit him privately about their own interests, since they could not provide for the safety of the state; Indutiomarus, dreading lest he should be abandoned by all, sends embassadors to Caesar, to declare that he absented himself from his countrymen, and refrained from coming to him on this account, that he might the more easily keep the state in its allegiance, lest on the departure of all the nobility the commonalty should, in their indiscretion, revolt. Cicero himself, though he was in very weak health, did not leave himself the night-time for repose, so that he was forced to spare himself by the spontaneous movement and entreaties of the soldiers. Since the other legions will be attacked, he says, they will not be able to offer aid. These military works they had learned from our men in the intercourse of former years, and, having taken some of our army prisoners, were instructed by them: but, as they had no supply of iron tools which are requisite for this service, they were forced to cut the turf with their swords, and to empty out the earth with their hands and cloaks, from which circumstance, the vast number of the men could be inferred; for in less than three hours they completed a fortification of ten miles in circumference; and during the rest of the days they began to prepare and construct towers of the height of the ramparts, and grappling irons, and mantelets, which the same prisoners had taught them. The Romans charge and the cavalry joins in. When our men had speedily taken up arms and had ascended the rampart, and sending out some Spanish horse on one side, had proved conquerors in a cavalry action, the enemy, despairing of success, drew off their troops from the assault. He witnesses with surprise the towers, mantelets, and [other] fortifications belonging to the enemy: the legion having been drawn out, he finds that even every tenth soldier had not escaped without wounds. Landing is easily accomplished and Caesar leaves ten cohorts and 300 horsemen to guard the fleet. When he had come thither, greater forces of the Britons had already assembled at that place, the chief command and management of the war having been intrusted to Cassivellaunus, whose territories a river, which is called the Thames, separates, from the maritime states at about eighty miles from the sea. He at first strove to obtain by every entreaty that he should be left in Gaul; partly, because, being unaccustomed to sailing, he feared the sea; partly because he said he was prevented by divine admonitions. After waiting, Caesar decides to make do with what he has on hand, crams the troops into the remaining ships, and manages to get safely across. Even Cotta, himself has been smashed in the face by a missile. Indutiomarus, it is true, after the battle with Caesar, assembles another army and attempts to take Labienus' camp, but Labienus uses Caesar's gambit of appearing afraid and, in addition, assembles a cavalry force so that his surprise is of double strength. An assembly being held the following day, he states the occurrence; he consoles and encourages the soldiers; he suggests, that the disaster, which had been occasioned by the misconduct and rashness of his lieutenant, should be borne with a patient mind, because by the favor of the immortal gods and their own valor, neither was lasting joy left to the enemy, nor very lasting grief to them. He orders the legion to set forward in the middle of the night, and come to him with dispatch. Indutiomarus realizes that he has suffered a slight from the empire and his resentment smolders. He himself in the mean while, until he had stationed the legions and knew that the several winter-quarters were fortified, determined to stay in Gaul. He, however, when recalled, began to resist and defend himself with his hand, and implore the support of his people, often exclaiming that �he was free and the subject of a free state.� They surround and kill the man as they had been commanded; but the Aeduan horsemen all return to Caesar. But, curiously, the natives do not take nearly the advantage of natural resources that they might. There is an abundance of clever strategy in the Commentaries, but in this book is Caesar's most famed maneuver. The Gauls and Germans, he feels, have various reasons for wanting to get even with Rome and if the Gauls and Germans are jointly armed, their best chance for victory is a quick move to the next legion. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. One legion which he had raised last on the other side of the Po, and five cohorts, he sent among the Eburones, the greatest portion of whom lie between the Meuse and the Rhine, [and] who were under the government of Ambiorix and Cativolcus. These having been entrapped, the Eburones, the Nervii, and the Aduatici and all their allies and dependents, begin to attack the legion: our men quickly run together to arms and mount the rampart; they sustained the attack that day with great difficulty, since the enemy placed all their hope in dispatch, and felt assured that, if they obtained this victory, they would be conquerors forever. Cassivellaunus, when this battle was reported to him as so many losses had been sustained, and his territories laid waste, being alarmed most of all by the desertion of the states, sends embassadors to Caesar [to treat] about a surrender through the mediation of Commius the Atrebatian. It is also here that he records one of the most amazing peculiarities of the natives of Britain: the tribesmen, he marvels, dye themselves a blue color, shave all their body save their head and upper lip, and have wives in common. Caesar's maneuver succeeds: seeing no Romans on the rampart, the enemy advance and fire missiles, then announce that anyone who comes over to their side before the final hour may do so without danger, but that after that time, there will be no mercy. They move, then, feeling sure that Ambiorix has advised them as a friend, not as an enemy. De Bello Gallico in Latin by Julius Caesar. from which, if immediate danger was not to be dreaded, yet certainly famine, by a protracted siege, was.� He himself, on the assizes of Hither Gaul being concluded, proceeds into Illyricum, because he heard that the part of the province nearest them was being laid waste by the incursions of the Pirustae. And it so happened, that out of so large a number of ships, in so many voyages, neither in this nor in the previous year was any ship missing which conveyed soldiers; but very few out of those which were sent back to him from the continent empty, as the soldiers of the former convoy had been disembarked, and out of those (sixty in number) which Labienus had taken care to have built, reached their destination; almost all the rest were driven back, and when Caesar had waited for them for some time in vain, lest he should be debarred from a voyage by the season of the year, inasmuch as the equinox was at hand, he of necessity stowed his soldiers the more closely, and, a very great calm coming on, after he had weighed anchor at the beginning of the second watch, he reached land at break of day and brought in all the ships in safety. The enemy then move in as if victory were already in their hands; the Romans, however, keep their heads, ignore the flames and continue fighting. The Roman fleet suffers severely in a storm.—XI. When permission was granted, they recount the same things which Ambiorix had related to Titurius, namely, �that all Gaul was in arms, that the Germans had passed the Rhine, that the winter-quarters of Caesar and of the others were attacked.� They report in addition also, about the death of Sabinus. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Each day fewer defenders are left. In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, two Roman centurions of the 11th Legion. 5 These matters being settled, Caesar went to port Itius with the legions. Ambiorix quickly tells his troops to keep at a safe distance in case of another Roman charge. Then they shouted, according to their custom, that some of our men should go forward to a conference, [alleging] that they had some things which they desired to say respecting the common interest, by which they trusted their disputes could be removed. courtneydunne. When the Romans are building camp and are off-guard, he writes, the enemy dashes from the woods and attacks the outposts. Those who do escape are not pursued; because they go into the marshes and woods, Caesar thinks it foolish to follow, and moves out his forces to join Cicero. Next, the general describes the island's shape and the location of some islands in the channel and notes that the nights here seem shorter than on the continent. The Gaul apprehending danger, throws his spear as he has been directed. Their parley unsuccessful, the Nervii surround the Roman camp with a rampart nine feet high and a trench fifteen feet wide, a technique they have learned from the Romans. 17 The following day the enemy halted on the hills, a distance from our camp, and presented themselves in small parties, and began to challenge our horse to battle with less spirit than the day before. However, none of the German States could be induced to cross the Rhine, since �they had twice essayed it,� they said, �in the war with Ariovistus and in the passage of the Tenchtheri there; that fortune was not to be tempted any more.� Indutiomarus disappointed in this expectation, nevertheless began to raise troops, and discipline them, and procure horses from the neighboring people, and allure to him by great rewards the outlaws and convicts throughout Gaul. Two of the centurions, Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus, are confirmed rivals and have long competed with each other during the fight. Caesar cannot believe the man but, because he is anxious to get to Britain, he asks Indutiomarns to bring 200 hostages. They speedily performed the things demanded, and sent hostages to the number appointed, and the corn. He is impressed by the towers and fortifications the enemy has erected but is shocked and saddened to find that nine-tenths of Cicero's troops are wounded. While reading the Commentaries, it is well to note the vast numbers involved. He says he has been summoned by various Gallic states and that they will march through the land of the Remi, destroying as they go, and that they will attack Labienus' camp. In disguise this slave, it is hoped, will be able to pass as one of the Gauls and carry a message to Caesar concealed in a spear shaft. They do not regard it lawful to eat the hare, and the cock, and the goose; they, however, breed them for amusement and pleasure. 2 These things being finished, and the assizes being concluded, he returns into Hither Gaul, and proceeds thence to the army. The easy way to get free eBooks every day. For the present, therefore, inasmuch as he knew that Cicero was released from the blockade, and thought that he might, on that account, relax his speed, he halted there and fortifies a camp in the most favorable position he can. At break of day they quit the camp, in a very extended line and with a very large amount of baggage, in such a manner as men who were convinced that the advice was given by Ambiorix, not as an enemy, but as most friendly [toward them]. De Bello Civili 93 6.2.1. 10 The next day, early in the morning, he sent both foot-soldiers and horse in three divisions on an expedition to pursue those who had fled. Finally the tower catches fire. He fearing, because several were involved in the act, that the state might revolt at their instigation, orders Lucius Plancus, with a legion, to proceed quickly from Belgium to the Carnutes, and winter there, and arrest and send to him the persons by whose instrumentality he should discover that Tasgetius was slain. 22 While these things are going forward in those places, Cassivellaunus sends messengers into Kent, which, we have observed above, is on the sea, over which districts four several kings reigned, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax, and commands them to collect all their forces, and unexpectedly assail and storm the naval camp. English Translation: Latin Text: 1.1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, another the Aquitani, the third those who by their language are called Celts, by ours Gauls. Later, Gains Trebonius, with three legions and the cavalry seeking forage, is attacked by the enemy. The cavalry of both sides skirmish a bit, but finally the Romans, according to plan, retreat into camp, where they pretend to be confused and afraid. When these things were finished, he asserts in the council that he, invited by the Senones and the Carnutes, and several other states of Gaul, was about to march thither through the territories of the Remi, devastate their lands, and attack the camp of Labienus: before he does that, he informs them of what he desires to be done. One other, with five cohorts, is sent to the Eburones, a tribe ruled by Ambiorix and Catuvolcus; this legion is commanded by Quintus Titurius Sabinus and Lucius Aurunculeins Cotta. 31 They rise from the council, detain both, and entreat, that �they do not bring the matter into the greatest jeopardy by their dissension and obstinacy; the affair was an easy one, if only they all thought and approved of the same thing, whether they remain or depart; on the other hand, they saw no security in dissension.� The matter is prolonged by debate till midnight. There, Caesar learns firsthand of the crisis at Cicero's camp. bookmarked pages associated with this title. C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO GALLICO LIBER PRIMVS. 24 The ships having been drawn up and a general assembly of the Gauls held at Samarobriva, because the corn that year had not prospered in Gaul by reason of the droughts, he was compelled to station his army in its winter-quarters differently from the former years, and to distribute the legions among several states: one of them he gave to C. Fabius, his lieutenant, to be marched into the territories of the Morini; a second to Q. Cicero, into those of the Nervii; a third to L. Roscius, into those of the Essui; a fourth he ordered to winter with T. Labienus among the Remi in the confines of the Treviri; he stationed three in Belgium; over these he appointed M. Crassus, his questor, and L. Munatius Plancus and C. Trebonius, his lieutenants. Caesar strikes, ordering his men to charge out from all gates, cavalry first. It is Labienus who finishes Indutiomarns' defeat. 38 Elated by this victory, Ambiorix marches immediately with his cavalry to the Aduatuci, who bordered on his kingdom; he halts neither day nor night, and orders the infantry to follow him closely. The latter induces four princes of Cantium to attack the Romans, by whom they are defeated.—XXIII. 19 Cassivellaunus, as we have stated above, all hope [rising out] of battle being laid aside, the greater part of his forces being dismissed, and about 4,000 charioteers only being left, used to observe our marches and retire a little from the road, and conceal himself in intricate and woody places, and in those neighborhoods in which he had discovered we were about to march, he used to drive the cattle and the inhabitants from the fields into the woods; and, when our cavalry, for the sake of plundering and ravaging the more freely, scattered themselves among the fields, he used to send out charioteers from the woods by all the well-known roads and paths, and to the great danger of our horse, engage with them; and this source of fear hindered them from straggling very extensively. When he had arrived there, he perceives that numerous forces of the enemy were marshaled on the other bank of the river; the bank also was defended by sharp stakes fixed in front, and stakes of the same kind fixed under the water were covered by the river. This affair having been known, all the forces of the Eburones and the Nervii which had assembled, depart; and for a short time after this action, Caesar was less harassed in the government of Gaul. He writes to Labienus to come with his legion to the frontiers of the Nervii, if he could do so to the advantage of the commonwealth: he does not consider that the remaining portion of the army, because it was somewhat further distant, should be waited for; but assembles about 400 horse from the nearest winter-quarters. And this, though it was small in itself, [there being] scarcely 7,000 men, and these too without baggage, still by the narrowness of the passages, he contracts as much as he can, with this object, that he may come into the greatest contempt with the enemy. The Eburones and the Nervii, hearing of this defeat, turn and head for home. Science, Tech, Math Science Math Social Sciences Computer Science ... Julius Caesar Summary and Study Guide. The Remi are quick to inform Labienus of Caesar's victory even though he is sixty miles away, and the Romans there are elated at the news. To the state moreover the occasion of the war was this-that it could not withstand the sudden combination of the Gauls; that he could easily prove this from his own weakness, since he was not so little versed in affairs as to presume that with his forces he could conquer the Roman people; but that it was the common resolution of Gaul; that that day was appointed for the storming of all Caesar�s winter-quarters, in order that no legion should be able to come to the relief of another legion, that Gauls could not easily deny Gauls, especially when a measure seemed entered into for recovering their common freedom. His personal enemies had killed him when in the third year of his reign, many even of his own state being openly promoters [of that act] This event is related to Caesar. Tasgetius.—XXVI. Probably, he decides, troops have been there, but they have no doubt been frightened by the sight of the massive Roman fleet. Remembering his ships' difficulties during the campaigns against the Veneti and the landing in Britain, Caesar decides to make his new ships of shallower draft than the older ones so that they can maneuver closer to shore. FREE TO TRY FOR 30 DAYS. But Indutiomarus began to collect cavalry and infantry, and make preparations for war, having concealed those who by reason of their age could not be under arms, in the forest Arduenna, which is of immense size, [and] extends from the Rhine across the country of the Treviri to the frontiers of the Remi. And such great influence had he already acquired for himself in Gaul by these means, that embassies were flocking to him in all directions, and seeking, publicly and privately, his favor and friendship. In Sections 21 and 22 of Book I, Caesar receives valuable information and acts immediately to gain a favorable battle position. 5 Gallōs ab AquÄ«tānÄ«s Garumna fl … Choose from 500 different sets of de bello gallico caesar book 1 flashcards on Quizlet. They point to Ambiorix for the purpose of obtaining credence; �they are mistaken,� say they, �if they hoped for any relief from those who distrust their own affairs; that they bear such feelings toward Cicero and the Roman people that they deny them nothing but winter-quarters, and are unwilling that the practice should become constant; that through their [the Nervii�s] means it is possible for them [the Romans] to depart from their winter-quarters safely and to proceed without fear into whatever parts they desire.� To these Cicero made only one reply: �that it is not the custom of the Roman people to accept any condition from an armed enemy: if they are willing to lay down their arms, they may employ him as their advocate and send embassadors to Caesar: that he believed, from his [Caesar�s] justice, they would obtain the things which they might request.� At this, the Romans are disheartened; they detest having to assume a defensive position. Nor does Varenus remain within the rampart, but respecting the high opinion of all, follows close after. Grammar Notes. It is a disheartening situation, but the Romans stand firm, though many continue to be wounded. And when the Romans return, the enemy attacks on two sides. Lucius Roscius, for example, in command of the Thirteenth Legion, tells him that a large force of Gauls from the Amoric states intend to attack him, but finally give up the idea when they hear of Caesar's most recent victory. He himself, having advanced by night about twelve miles, espied the forces of the enemy. These things being discovered from [some] prisoners and deserters, Caesar, sending forward the cavalry, ordered the legions to follow them immediately. But Caesar forbade his men to pursue them in their flight any great distance; both because he was ignorant of the nature of the ground, and because, as a great part of the day was spent, he wished time to be left for the fortification of the camp. Returning then to Hither Gaul, the general rejoins his army and finds that by extraordinary effort his men have assembled about 600 ships and twenty men-of-war vessels. The work is carried on incessantly in the night: not even to the sick, or wounded, is opportunity given for rest: whatever things are required for resisting the assault of the next day are provided during the night: many stakes burned at the end, and a large number of mural pikes are procured: towers are built up, battlements and parapets are formed of interwoven hurdles. When he had arrived there, he levies soldiers upon the states, and orders them to assemble at an appointed place. The new ones, however, he explains, are to be built differently than the others; they will be lower and wider than usual so that cargo and animals can be more easily carried and unloaded. Ambiorix tells the Roman representatives that he is much indebted to Caesar and does not wish to make war but that he has been forced to do so by the people of his state. Other tribes surrender to Caesar and inform him that Cassivellaunus is hidden not far away with many men and cattle. This side extends about 500 miles. He returns to inspect the fleet and finds that forty ships have been totally destroyed; the others, he believes, can be repaired. 14 The most civilized of all these nations are they who inhabit Kent, which is entirely a maritime district, nor do they differ much from the Gallic customs. They, advancing to the river with their cavalry and chariots from the higher ground, began to annoy our men and give battle. Cassivellaunus' next move is to disband his army. Centurions of the third cohort dare the enemy to enter camp, but the enemy is wary and answers with such a mass of missiles that the centurions are forced to fall back. Cassivellaunus next calls in forces from the other districts of Kent and attacks Caesar's naval camp, but is quickly put down by the Romans. If he and his men, therefore, stay where they are, they might find themselves without food. In that council he declares Cingetorix, the leader of the other faction, his own son-in-law (whom we have above mentioned, as having embraced the protection of Caesar, and never having deserted him) an enemy and confiscates his property. 8 When these things were done [and] Labienus left on the continent with three legions and 2,000 horse, to defend the harbors and provide corn, and discover what was going on in Gaul, and take measures according to the occasion and according to the circumstance; he himself, with five legions and a number of horse, equal to that which he was leaving on the continent, set sail at sun-set, and [though for a time] borne forward by a gentle south-west wind, he did not maintain his course, in consequence of the wind dying away about midnight, and being carried on too far by the tide, when the sun rose, espied Britain passed on his left. A great amount of cattle was found there, and many of the enemy were taken and slain in their flight. from your Reading List will also remove any Having commended the soldiers and those who had presided over the work, he informs them what he wishes to be done, and orders all the ships to assemble at port Itius, from which port he had learned that the passage into Britain was shortest, [being only] about thirty miles from the continent. Caesar learns of the assassination and fears revolt, so he orders Lucius Plancus to move his legion from the land of the Belgae to the land of the Carnutes for the winter. Then the smoke of the fires was seen in the distance, a circumstance which banished all doubt of the arrival of the legions. At this point, a Nervian soldier persuades a slave, by promising him his freedom, to try and reach Caesar. In the mean time, that part of the Roman army, of necessity, was left unprotected, and the weapons received on their open flank. 37 Sabinus orders those tribunes of the soldiers whom he had at the time around him, and the centurions of the first ranks, to follow him, and when he had approached near to Ambiorix, being ordered to throw down his arms, he obeys the order and commands his men to do the same. 26 About fifteen days after they had come into winter-quarters, the beginning of a sudden insurrection and revolt arose from Ambiorix and Cativolcus, who, though they had met with Sabinus and Cotta at the borders of their kingdom, and had conveyed corn into our winter-quarters, induced by the messages of Indutiomarus, one of the Treviri, excited their people, and after having suddenly assailed the soldiers engaged in procuring wood, came with a large body to attack the camp.
2020 de bello gallico book 5 summary